The Colosseum was built between 72CE and 80CE by the emperor Vespasian and his heir Titus in order to create a public space for a range of spectacles, executions, and other entertainment. When finished, the Colosseum had a maximum capacity of about 80,000 spectators, and the average number who attended events was about 65,000, making it a major part of Roman life. The alternative name for the arena, based on the Latin, is the Flavian Amphitheater and reflects their shared imperial family name. The inaugural games were held in 81 AD and it was recorded that more than 9,000 animals were killed during the opening. The Colosseum is most famous for being used as an arena for gladiatorial fights, and the ruins of many gladiatorial schools have been found in the surrounding area. The program for each day would be varied, with gladiators fighting, hunting animals, and criminals of various kinds being executed by being forced to face dangerous animals without weapons. It was also reported that the arena floor could be flooded, and small ships could reenact naval battles in front of a thrilled audience. The Colosseum was used for entertainment until the 6th century, but after this point it was used for a range of different purposes, including shops, a chapel, a cemetery, and homes. The arena was severely damaged by an earthquake in 1349 and largely abandoned, though its stones were taken and used in a wide range of buildings throughout the city. Quarrying was banned by Pope Benedict XIV in 1749, as he decreed it to be the site of the deaths of many Christian martyrs, though there’s no evidence that any early Christians were killed there specifically because of their religion. Later Popes supported archaeological excavation and restoration. The largest restoration program began in 2013, with the goal of opening even more areas of the arena to the public.