The Spanish Inquisition was one of the institutions founded by Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile in order to enforce religious orthodoxy in their kingdoms, replacing the existing Papal Inquisition, which was directly run by Rome. The kingdoms in question had laws in place requiring Jewish and Muslim residents to convert to Catholicism, and the Inquisition played a part in policing these conversions. Individuals accused of heresy were convicted of false conversion, of being Christian heretics, or of committing some other crime against Roman Catholic doctrine, and were often subjected to torture. Córdoba was the site of one of the earliest permanent tribunals of the Spanish Inquisition, founded in 1482, and the Tower of the Inquisition in the Alcázar housed the archives of the Tribunal of the Holy Inquisition for several centuries. Between 1540 and 1700 there reportedly 883 trials and 8 executions in Cordóba, though the real numbers are considered to be at least 5000 trials and 27 executions. At least 26 people were also executed ‘in effigy’. During the autos da fé between 1701 and 1746, it’s estimated that 161 people in total were executed (in person or in effigy) and ‘penanced’. But don’t think that being burned in effigy was the soft punishment - common reasons victims were executed in effigy is because they’d escaped into exile abroad or had already died while imprisoned. The Spanish Inquisition was eventually abolished in 1834 after a century of declining influence and power, and today its era is usually remembered as a time of extreme religious intolerance and persecution.